From the sys. In this Python Programming Tutorial, we will be learning how to read, write, and match regular expressions with the re module. com part, the marker would be @ (which is right before the domain name) and. In case of substring startIndex is inclusive and endIndex is exclusive. find(sub1) + l. compile() function, but sometimes it is more convenient to set them as part of the regex itself. Home » Python » How to extract the substring between two markers? How to extract the substring between two markers? Shorten the regular expression into a single. Rate this: and it examines and generates Regular expressions. Lets see with an example of reg exp. Extract substring from column in pandas python can be done by using extract function with regular expression in it. start ([group]) end ([group]) Return the indices of the start and end of the substring matched by group; group defaults to zero (meaning the whole matched substring). A Word Aligned article posted 2006-09-02, tagged C++, Ruby, Puzzles, Python, Boost, Regex, Characters. How to use matches to extract values using regex. This problem has existing solution please refer Extract maximum numeric value from a given string | Set 1 (General approach) link. In the System. Python String Methods. Python Regex to extract maximum numeric value from a string Python | Program that matches a word containing 'g' followed by one or more e's using regex Program to check if a string contains any special character. Python Regular Expression is one of my favourite topics. {"bugs":[{"bugid":633540,"firstseen":"2017-10-05T09:50:30. I suppose you can always use the substring method for. Here is my regex: ^[a-zA-Z0-9]+ I tried using the Regex Split and it is not giving me what I need. This is for a bash script. What I'm looking for is a pattern that matches both of these strings: Subject: [PATCH 08/18] This is the patch name Subject: This is the patch name What I want is to extract the "This is the patch name". Hi Dan, yes, i'm referring to Regex. jQuery / Regex: How to compare string against several substrings. Python Regular Expressions - part #2 - Re. Finally, here’s an example that shows you how to match a string against a list of patterns. To extract a substring from the middle of a text string, you need to identify the position of the marker right before and after the substring. This is done by searching with. One line of regex can easily replace several dozen lines of programming codes. A very nice alternative approach to performing the if substring boolean check is to use the Python Standard Library string method for find(). sub() in Python and does not offer a way to set the MULTILINE flag. If we want to extract data from a string in Python we can use the findall() method to extract all of the substrings which match a regular expression. In this Python Programming Tutorial, we will be learning how to read, write, and match regular expressions with the re module. Using the C++11 regex_search Function. One can extract the digits or given string using various methods. Python has a built-in package called re, which can be used to work with Regular Expressions. search() when you want to match anywhere in a string. If we want to extract data from a string in Python we can use the findall() method to extract all of the substrings which match a regular expression. extract to extract a substring from within a column in a dataframe I have imported. The substring is matched to the nth capturing group, where n is the given index. Python RegEx is widely used by almost all of the startups and has good industry traction for their applications as well as making Regular Expressions an asset for the modern day progr. I've been also trying using Java and Python snippets but somehow having problems with them too. So far I managed to match the string, but I'm confused as to how to extract the digits into a separate value. The substrings are actually divided when you run regexm. Online regular expression testing for Perl using perlre. A part of string is called substring. Regular expressions (and Perl itself, for that matter) really start earning their keep by allowing you to select and process substrings based on what they contain, and the context in which they appear. The length of each captured substring is available using the capturedLength() function. Use the constructor function when you know the regular expression pattern will be changing, or you don't know the pattern and are getting it from another source, such as user input. This collides with Python’s usage of the same character for the same purpose in string literals; for example, to match a literal backslash, one might have to write '\\\\' as the pattern string, because the regular expression must be \\, and each backslash must be expressed as \\ inside a regular Python string literal. I suspect that this is. Special Characters 6. This is used by vformat() to break the string into either literal text, or replacement fields. Python offers many ways to substring a string. This is done by searching with. how to extract substring in c# using regex. Anchoring 10. source() #output: '([a-zA-Z\\ ])' Find and Seek. In other words, we can tell Python to look for a certain substring within our target string, and split the target string up around that sub-string. Objects returned by the itertools module, such as count, repeat and cycle. , (linenum, line). The first element of the list is a subexpression count. To extract the substring of the column in R we use functions like substr() , str_sub() or str_extract() function. extracting substrings based on 'fuzzy' match; self extracting zipefile (windows) and (standard module) zipefile; extracting substrings in VB6; Generating all ordered substrings of a string; Extracting a number from a string? {simple} Extracting Substrings from textbox; searching data for a large set of substrings; Extracting a substring. Python RegEx is widely used by almost all of the startups and has good industry traction for their applications as well as making Regular Expressions an asset for the modern day progr. If you're in a programming environment, it would probably be easier to use. Have you come to Python after programming in another language? If so, you may have run into a wall when you looked for the substring method that is found in those other languages. > If you remove '^' and '$' from your regexps, you can see what happens: > only the matching part between two ' 's is replaced. ' For 'table', I would like to extract 'table'. 1 web browsers do not properly prevent a frame in one domain from injecting content into a frame that belongs to another domain, which facilitates web site spoofing and other attacks, aka the frame injection vulnerability. For example, in Java, the substring method is used to get the substring from the source string. " and I need to get substring from position 10 to 15 (ie. find('great') 18. Regular Expression Reference: Capturing Groups and Backreferences. Why would you want to use named capture regular expressions?. They can handle much more complex patterns than the String Split Function. This regular expression is explained as: one or more digits, followed by zero or more non-digits, followed by one or more digits, (which are captured in $1 because of the parenthesis). Home » Python » String Functions in Python with Examples This tutorial outlines various string or character functions used in Python. This is a tiny program. What I'm looking for is a pattern that matches both of these strings: Subject: [PATCH 08/18] This is the patch name Subject: This is the patch name What I want is to extract the "This is. it> writes: but in general is there a way to include in a re, in this example. That is they will try to capture as many characters as possible. REGEXP_INSTR will determine whether a substring defined by the regex exists in the expression/field and REGEXP_SUBSTR will extract the substring defined in the regex if it exists in the expression. In python, it is implemented in the re module. No exponent. i want to extract and convert the number and get a string of what remains. here to get more details on how regular expressions work. A part of a string (substring) specified by a range of indices. NET syntax at a time when only Python and PCRE used the Python syntax, and only. -expanded Enables use of the expanded regular expression syntax where whitespace and comments are ignored. A regular expression defines a search pattern for strings. Time to discover the fundamental concepts of regular expressions! In this key chapter, you will learn to understand the basic concepts of regular expression syntax. If regular expressions' only benefit was looking for a (albeit complex) string within a string, it wouldn't be worth learning. In this article we studied some of the most commonly used regex functions in Python. Regular expressions also known as Regex are used to find search patterns. find("Hello Lua user", "banana") nil We can optionally specify where to start the search with a third argument. A very nice alternative approach to performing the if substring boolean check is to use the Python Standard Library string method for find(). The page I am trying to parse has a number of productIds which appear in the following format \"productId\":\"111111\" I need to extract all the values, 111111 in this case. What I'm looking for is a pattern that matches both of these strings: Subject: [PATCH 08/18] This is the patch name Subject: This is the patch name What I want is to extract the "This is the patch name". split() if you want to extract fields when you have a common field separator. Python Python Regex Cheatsheet. A regular expression with named groups can fill a dictionary. Home » Python » How to extract the substring between two markers? How to extract the substring between two markers? Shorten the regular expression into a single. Html does not require closing. I had been looking for a chance to practice web scraping and regular expressions in Python and decided this was a great short project. extract (self, pat, flags=0, expand=True) [source] ¶ Extract capture groups in the regex pat as columns in a DataFrame. Also, in some cases you may. if you want to learn Python regex operations, it's also a good practice of course. Especially, when we are dealing with the text data then we may have requirements to select the rows matching a substring in all columns or select the rows based on the condition derived by concatenating two column values and many other scenarios where you have to slice,split,search substring with the text data in a Pandas Dataframe. Extracting data using regular expressions. So we can say that the task of searching and extracting is so common that Python has a very powerful library called regular expressions that handles many of these tasks quite elegantly. This is a video tutorial for beginners who haven't done any programming in Visual Studio 2008. extract¶ Series. The Python module re provides full support for Perl-like regular expressions in Python. I used the finditer function in Python's re library. In python, extracting substring form string can be done using findall method in regular expression Though it is a problem about more regular expressions that Python. It is common to use the 'r' at the start of the pattern string, that designates a python "raw" string which passes through backslashes without change which is very handy for regular expressions. Python - Regular Expressions - A regular expression is a special sequence of characters that helps you match or find other strings or sets of strings, using a specialized syntax held in a pat. Python Regular Expressions - part #2 - Re. However, when the regex gets more complicated, and I want to save the utility in a script, that perl or python suite me better. strptime" to parse the date. PCRE, Python, Golang and JavaScript. They capture the text matched by the regex inside them into a numbered group that can be reused with a numbered backreference. REGEXP_SUBSTR extends the functionality of the SUBSTR function by letting you search a string for a regular expression pattern. Yet another case of Python vs. str_match_ind_regex Returns a list of indexes into an array of strings that contain the given substring (case sensitive), allowing for regular expressions. The substring method of a string will return a part of the string. Count function counting only last line of my list. Parse pandas df column with regex extracting substrings. Extracting substring matching POSIX regular expression. Match string not containing string Given a list of strings (words or other characters), only return the strings that do not match. Why use [code ]findall[/code] when regex alone is capable of doing it (if you know the right way to do it). They can handle much more complex patterns than the String Split Function. This document describes the theory behind regular expressions (RE) as well as their practical usage. I would like to use regular expressions to do it, but I've never used them before so I'm having trouble with the syntax. tags, for instance. How can I count the number of occurrences of a substring in a string using Bash? -c makes grep write the count of matched regex, instead of perl or python. Extract substring regex python keyword after analyzing the system lists the list of keywords related and the list of websites with related content, in addition you can see which keywords most interested customers on the this website. How to use matches to extract values using regex. How can I alter it to get the text before the first slash?. extract function works great, but after looking at the discussion in #5075, I would probably have voted to keep the name. I isolated the problem to the regular expression in the. I am probably missing something, but it seems fairly straightforward to extract something from another document - the question is whether it's allowed. Regular Expression Reference: Named Groups and Backreferences JGsoft. So you need to import library re before you can use regular expressions in Python. My first solution was to match the substring with the string like:. rstrip()) print(li. com Free MCTS EXAM 70-. findall Above we used re. The digits may be double or single, and I need to extract just the 04 in the example above, or basically the first number in the NNxNN part, whether thats single or double digits. Regular expression (pattern): The pattern which is searched for in the target sequence. python strings How to extract the substring between two markers? Though it is a problem about more regular expressions that Python. This section will cover some of Python's built-in string methods and formatting operations, before moving on to a quick guide to the extremely useful subject of regular expressions. An in-place sort is slightly more efficient, since Python does not have to allocate a new list to hold the result. tags, for instance. I isolated the problem to the regular expression in the. Here, we will discuss Metacharacters, examples & functions of Python Regex. Regular expressions are patterns used to match character combinations in strings. Each file contains two unique words ()alpha and bravo and i want to extract the text between these unique words and write it to a different file. Each file contains two unique words ()alpha and bravo and i want to extract the text between these unique words and write it to a different file. Unix/awk: Extracting substring using a regular expression with capture groups. eg: But what if you need to search for just ‘cat’ or some other regular expression and return a list of the list items that match, or a list of selected parts of list items that …. R provides powerful functions to deal with regular expressions. Hi Dan, yes, i'm referring to Regex. Extract first n characters from left of column in pandas python; Extract last n characters from right of the column in pandas python; Replace a substring of a column in pandas python; Regular expression Replace of substring of a column in pandas python; Repeat or replicate the rows of dataframe in pandas python (create duplicate rows). Top Regular Expressions. The second is the length. , (linenum, line). The page I am trying to parse has a number of productIds which appear in the following format \"productId\":\"111111\" I need to extract all the values, 111111 in this case. We have seen, what the simplest regular expression looks like. 2013-03-20 16:47 strk * Deprecate non-CamelCase linear referencing function (#1994) - ST_Line_Interpolate_Point renamed to ST_LineInterpolatePoint - ST_Line_Substring renamed to ST_LineSubstring - ST_Line_Locate_Point renamed to ST_LineLocatePoint Tests updated to use the new signature, docs updated to show the new signature and report. Character strings can turn up in all stages of a data science project. if it were already a function, it would probably return a 2-tuple like (number,remaining_string). The JGsoft regex engine copied the Python and the. Python Python Regex Cheatsheet. This is not the place you are looking for on 5243 Sunnyvale Drive" sub1 = "the place" sub2 = "drive" def find_intermediate_chars(text, sub1, sub2): pos1 = text. The substring returned is the match of the regexp. Regex Cheat Sheet. Python Exercises, Practice and Solution: Write a Python program to extract values between quotation marks of a string. substring(0, s3. Python will return the index where the substring begins. Regular expressions also known as Regex are used to find search patterns. Regular Expression Basics. http://mctsexam70-536tutorials. Here is my regex: ^[a-zA-Z0-9]+ I tried using the Regex Split and it is not giving me what I need. substring(0, str. You need to know the format of date that can be there in the string in order to extract it. Variables are given new values with assignment operators, increment operators, and decrement operators (see Assignment Ops ). search() to find the first match for a pattern. Regular expressions are a way to search for substrings ("matches") in strings. ''' str_extract_between_nth. In other words, substring is a subset of another string. In other words, substring is a subset of another string. "re" module included with Python primarily used for string searching and manipulation Also used frequently for webpage "Scraping" (extract large amount of data from websites). If we want to extract data from a string in Python we can use the findall() method to extract all of the substrings which match a regular expression. Python has quite a few methods that string objects can call to perform frequency occurring task (related to string). RegularExpressions namespace is a Regex class, which encapsulates the interface to the regular expressions engine and allows you to perform matches and extract information from text using regular expressions. How to validate password using regular expression? How to validate file extensions using regular expression in java? How to validate date format using regular expression in java? How to capture or extract a value(s) from text using regular expression in java? How to split a string using regular expression?. Using regular expressions, I'm trying to extract from a text file just the emails from input lines. In between the single quotes is the data I want. It is done easily using the python regular expression library. Python Forums on Bytes. That is they will try to capture as many characters as possible. However, when the regex gets more complicated, and I want to save the utility in a script, that perl or python suite me better. The second element is a list of property names that describe various attributes of the regular expression. The JavaScript language does. But since there are a lot of "broken" HTML pages out there, a solution only using regular expressions might either miss some valid links or end up with bad data. Extract first n characters from left of column in pandas python; Extract last n characters from right of the column in pandas python; Replace a substring of a column in pandas python; Regular expression Replace of substring of a column in pandas python; Repeat or replicate the rows of dataframe in pandas python (create duplicate rows). By default, Python’s sort algorithm determines the order by comparing the objects in the list against each other. I need help in regex or Python to extract a substring from a set of string. In Python, it’s generally best to compile regular expressions into re objects. From small things big effects come. Regular expressions as a concept is not exclusive to Python at all. A regular expression with named groups can fill a dictionary. Extract the column of. (Sponsors) Get started learning Python with DataCamp's free Intro to Python tutorial. Python | Get matching substrings in string The testing of a single substring in a string has been discussed many times. , (linenum, line). In Python, regular expression operations are handled using Python’s. This quick tutorial shows how to obtain or finds substring when using bash shell. Regular Expression Basics. In other words, we can tell Python to look for a certain substring within our target string, and split the target string up around that sub-string. Type python to open the Python interpreter. com I'm trying to use the built in pandas method. The first part of the code is the "standard" code that will open the file, read the lines one-by-one in a while loop, chomp the newline from the end of the line and then do the important task for each line. Let's delve into this without wasting a moment to learn Python Regex Tutorial. So, I am trying to extract the top alphanumeric code and when I test it out in a regex tester, it works. 1 web browsers do not properly prevent a frame in one domain from injecting content into a frame that belongs to another domain, which facilitates web site spoofing and other attacks, aka the frame injection vulnerability. Using Regular Expression to Extract specific substring Using Regular Expression to Extract specific substring - ArishyToSirJN7 (for arishy at chandoo. Parse pandas df column with regex extracting substrings (Python) - Codedump. In other words, substring is a subset of another string. How do I extract the substring using regex? Each pair of (unescaped) parentheses in the regular expression defines a capture group. We'll also experience how efficiently regex and the pandas library bring order to large, unorganised data sets. A regular expression with named groups can fill a dictionary. Especially, when we are dealing with the text data then we may have requirements to select the rows matching a substring in all columns or select the rows based on the condition derived by concatenating two column values and many other scenarios where you have to slice,split,search substring with the text data in a Pandas Dataframe. Python Regular Expressions - part #2 - Re. Comprehensions are great when the problems are very small, but they're like regex - the complexity of the solution grows much faster than the complexity of the problem. If your input falls within a very small and strict subset of valid html, using regular expressions can be quite straightforward. C# Compiler problem with substring when parsing string; how to find all occurrences of a substring in a string python; reading a substring from a string value; Extract substring multiple occurance large string; My code outputs a string with a lot of garbage at the end of it How to find number of substring in a String. 10-digit phone number with hyphens match whole word Find Substring within a string that begins and ends with paranthesis Simple date dd/mm/yyyy all except word RegEx for Json Match if doesn't start with string Find any word in a list of words. Now that we have a regex object, we can pass it to some useful C++ functions, such as regex_search. This video is supposed to give you an idea of how to handle a typical text analytics problem when you come across it. Regular expressions have been around for quite a while and are a field of computer science in and of themselves. We have also learnt, how to use regular expressions in Python by using the search() and the match() methods of the re module. Extracting the payload from a pcap file using Python. 592684","severity":"normal","status":"UNCONFIRMED","summary":"dev-haskell\/cabal-1. how to use python to extract certain text in the file?. Regular expressions use two types of characters: a) Meta characters: As the name suggests, these characters have a special meaning, similar to * in wild card. Extract the column of. Since we only cover a few of the most commonly used methods, you will find it useful to consult the official documentation on the re module as well. com I'm trying to use the built in pandas method. This quick tutorial shows how to obtain or finds substring when using bash shell. Written by Zeph Grunschlag. Regular Expressions. Regular expressions are extremely useful for preprocessing text that can be further used for a variety of applications, such as topic modeling, text classification, sentimental analysis, and text summarization, etc. 8, and (4) Netscape 7. Especially, when we are dealing with the text data then we may have requirements to select the rows matching a substring in all columns or select the rows based on the condition derived by concatenating two column values and many other scenarios where you have to slice,split,search substring with the text data in a Pandas Dataframe. If we want to extract data from a string in Python we can use the findall() method to extract all of the substrings which match a regular expression. , divide up) the string to extract the individual pieces. Given below are few methods to solve the given problem. If str is a string array or cell array of character vectors, then startPos can be a numeric scalar or a numeric array of the same size as str. Extract the column of. Tip: Use a negative number to select from the end of the string. How do I extract the substring using regex? Each pair of (unescaped) parentheses in the regular expression defines a capture group. So, say, we have the string, "I have 3 kids" In certain cases in code, we may want to extract just the number from the string. Using slicing, you can find the substring of a string, from specific position to another specific position. Extracting data using regular expressions. ${parameter:offset:length}. python 3 regex | python 3 regex | python 3 regex match | python 3 regexp | python 3 regex replace | python 3 regex sub | python 3 regex flags | python 3 regex g Nichesblog. Scala: How to extract parts of a string that match a regex | alvinalexander. This can be solved by using a robust HTML parsing library. A common workflow with regular expressions is that you write a pattern for the thing you are looking for, adding parenthesis groups to extract the parts you want. How regular expression works:- How do I remove a substring from the end of a string in Python?. So, I am trying to extract the top alphanumeric code and when I test it out in a regex tester, it works. How to get the index of the first occurrence of a substring. OK, so now we know that the substring ‘great’ starts at index 18. One of the most common uses for regular expressions is extracting a part of a string or testing for the existence of a pattern in a string. You can still take a look, but it might be a bit quirky. And: Each value is the data matched by the regular expression. What I mean is this: - It is easy to search for a substring of a string using regular expressions - Can I also search for a substring inside a file using regular expressions?. To demonstrate a sample usage of regular expressions, lets create a program to extract email addresses from a string. py> the_str[7:12] 'the t' Regular expressions don't extract substrings with known start/end positions. If we want to extract data from a string in Python we can use the findall() method to extract all of the substrings which match a regular expression. The substring expansion is a bash feature. For more information about writing regular expressions and syntax not specific to Python, see the regular expressions wikibook. The JavaEscapeTest class gives an example of this. In this tutorial you'll learn how to use Python's rich set of operators, functions, and methods for working with strings. The usual tools are: String. Regular Expression Syntax¶. RE Module Basics 3. Extract substrings using regex using Scala. The string that I am dealing with is pasted below, and I want to extract the prices that are contained in the string below. Introduction to regular expressions 2. Regular expressions work very nicely when your HTML is well formatted and predictable. If regular expressions' only benefit was looking for a (albeit complex) string within a string, it wouldn't be worth learning. for java or perl reg exe - online regular expressions testing This tool makes it possible to simultaneously test a regular expression on strings (i. findall() finds *all* the matches and returns them as a list of strings, with each string representing one match. com part, the marker would be @ (which is right before the domain name) and. a backslash in a regular expression has to be written as a double backslash, because the backslash functions as an escape character in regular expressions. Regular expressions will often be written in Python code using this raw string notation. Here, we'll turn to the go-to Python library for anything regex re. So you need to import library re before you can use regular expressions in Python. Here we've first compiled a regular expression, then used it to split a string. The regular expression engine is responsible for parsing and compiling a regular expression, and for performing operations that match the regular expression pattern with an input string. The position argument is an integer that specifies the starting character of the substring. Lets see with an example of reg exp. Regular expressions also known as Regex are used to find search patterns. Regular expressions themselves, with a general pattern notation almost like a mini programming language, allow you to describe and parse text. Extracting a substring with regex_replace fails. Matching a string. My regular expression "(00. com THE WORLD'S LARGEST WEB DEVELOPER SITE. Regular expression is used to : (1) test a string whether it matches a pattern, such as a email address. dat I was using split file = os. In a (BSD) UNIX environment, I would like to capture a specific substring using a regular expression. Any character except newline Regular Expression Flags; i: Ignore case: m ^ and $ match start and end of. Extract all lines containing substring, using regex The program below is similar to the above program, but using the re regular expressions module. One place where the Python language really shines is in the manipulation of strings. regexm(string, "regular expression") For regexs, that is, to recall all or a portion of a string, the syntax is: regexs(n) Where n is the number assigned to the substring you want to extract. 5, so you can use updated version: int(''. General Discussion. In python, it is implemented in the re module. Of course, we can also omit either the start position, or the end position which will tell Python that we would like to either start our sub-string from the start, or end it at the end, respectively. If str is a string array or cell array of character vectors, then startPos can be a numeric scalar or a numeric array of the same size as str. Each file contains two unique words ()alpha and bravo and i want to extract the text between these unique words and write it to a different file. split methods. For example, If you have the date in a string in the format YYYY-MM-DD, you can use the. com Free MCTS EXAM 70-. You can simply use a regular expression to extract the date and "datetime. In between the single quotes is the data I want. > You are missing the newlines the string contains. the re module is simply a C extension module included with Python. As an example we'll learn how to use regex to extract a substring from a larger string. Python | Get matching substrings in string The testing of a single substring in a string has been discussed many times. The question is whether &chap3; is legal in an XML parser. In the System. 2 allows local users to change the permissions of arbitrary files, and consequently gain privileges, by blocking the removal of a certain directory that contains a control socket, related to improper interaction with ksm. Regular expressions, also called regex, is a syntax or rather a language to search, extract and manipulate specific string patterns from a larger text. extract(r'regex') First let's create a dataframe. NET syntax at a time when only Python and PCRE used the Python syntax, and only. Pandas Series. r Extract Substrings That Match Regex // Apply the regex pattern such that each of the two pattern matches is assigned to a seperate value val pattern ( vehicle_number , vehicle_type ) = text. Just as regular expressions themselves can range from simple to complex, so can their uses. (Careful! These methods are implemented with a regular expression. The position argument is an integer that specifies the starting character of the substring. Note that any capture group names in the regular expression will be used for column names; otherwise capture group numbers will be used. Extract the column of. Python Exercises, Practice and Solution: Write a Python program to extract values between quotation marks of a string. generate a random string of digits and uppercase letters, of minimun length 12: BASE(RAND()*10^18,36,12). I have no prior experience with Regex and I was mainly asking this question to see if that's the easiest/most straight forward way to do this. Anchoring 10. Python RegEx - Extract or Find All the Numbers in a String; Python RegEx - Find numbers of specific length in String; Python String - Replace character at Specific Position; Python String - Find the index of first occurrence of substring; Python String - Find the number of overlapping occurrences of a substring; Python NameError: name 'string. The errors and line numbers are stored as tuples , e. Here's a solution without regex that also accounts for scenarios where the first substring contains the second substring.